Encoding and Decoding Custom Types with Swift 4

Overview

Swift 4 comes with the new ideas for encoding and decoding custom types using the new protocol named Codable. Yes, one word for two Protocols Encodable and Decodable.

Using codable we can generate and parse JSON or any other external representations. Codable protocol use to perform both encoding and decoding from and to – JSON by declaring conformance to Codable. Codable have mainly two protocols Encodable and Decodable, which are used to encode and decode our data. This process is known as making our types codable.

Let’s take an example of Company JSON as follows:

So our Swift structure for above JSON should look like this:

As discussed above, now we would know that Codable is union type including Encodable and Decodable and satisfied all requirements. So now we don’t have to worry about the bidirectional process of conversion by choosing suitable protocol as per requirements. Swift 4 makes conversion very simple by this feature.

Codable comes with a default implementation, and by using this we get useful default behaviour.

Now, Create one object of above class and encode as follow:

Output should be look like this:

Encoded Json:

Decoded Data:
Name – Yudiz Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
Address – Ahmedabad, Gujarat
contactNo – +917965130111

Done!!
For decoding JSON and encoding JSON, this code works great if key names and types are same in both, because there is no need for customization. But what about if keys and types are not same??

Now we take a scenario in which key names and types are different. For that, we will do Customization and Customise key names using CodingKeys protocol.

Customise Key Names using CodingKey protocol:

If the API’s uses different naming keys, and that style not matched with our swift naming guideline, provide alternate keys by adding a nested enumeration named CodingKeys that conforms to the CodingKey protocol, which is used to connect a property to a value in the encoded format.This lets you to name your data structures according to the Swift API Design Guidelines rather than having to match the names, punctuation, and capitalization of the serialisation format that you are modelling.

Now our json output as follow:
Encoded Json:

We can also format output of JSON by customising output formatting of the JSONEncoder to make it a better human readable form using outputFormatting property. The default value of this property is .compact, we can change it as per our requirement.

Now output looks like this:
Encoded JSON:

Custom encoding and decoding:

If the class structure of your swift file different from its encoded form, we can do custom encoding and decoding by providing a custom implementation of the Encodable and Decodable protocol. In other words, If you want more control over encoding and decoding, you can customise by using inbuilt methods of the Encodable and Decodable protocol.

Let’s take one example of JSON which we want to encode and decode from:

For this we can create a simple class which extends Codabale protocol as follow:

For a custom implementation of encoding, we implement encode(to encoder:) and for decoding init(from decoder:) methods of Codable protocol to have more control over how the JSON maps to our basic types.

For custom encoding, we need to take the encoder, get a container and encode our JSON values to it. A container has some types as per requirement of our JSON. Following are the types of container:
Keyed Container – It provides the actual values for keys which comes in JSON.
Unkeyed Container – Unkeyed Container gives you ordered values without keys. In the JSONEncoder, this means an array.
Single Value Container – this outputs the raw value without any kind of containing the element.
In order to encode any of our properties, we’ll first need to get a container. Looking at the JSON structure we started with at the top of this post, it’s clear we need a keyed container.

Follow how we encode our JSON into container:

Now we need to decode encoded values for that we use the decoder. We can decode all basic types of swift but we need to specify the type while decoding any object otherwise it throws DecodingError.TypeMismatch error and we can handle it.

We can use these encoding and decoding as follow:

Since the JSON parsing depends on the names of its properties, so you cannot rename them otherwise you have to change the JSON also. You can test that by changing any property and you can see that through breaking JSON encoding/decoding.

That’s all for now! But in future posts, we’ll be looking at Codable again, including handling exceptions generated by encoding/decoding, Dynamic coding keys, handling dates and float values.

For more references:
API Collection Encoding, Decoding, and Serialization
WWDC 2017 – Session 212

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Anup Kanjariya Jr. iOS Developer

I am a Jr. iOS developer at Yudiz Solutions Pvt. Ltd. - a leading iPhone App development company. I am interested in science and technology which encourages me to participate in inventing new things and concepts. But, my greatest love is programming, software architecture, writing code etc, in short, converting ideas into reality.

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